# Know the Science behind Beauty

**Written by Dr Reema Das Mallik**

#### Reema Das Mallik is an aesthetic physician and clinical cosmetologist in Guwahati. She is the founder of the first aesthetic clinic in Guwahati, Illumis aesthetic clinic situated in ABC, Guwahati.

**Have you ever wondered?**

Why do we regard these gorgeous ladies like Madhubala, Maharani Gayatri Devi as timeless beauties? What is that aspect which determines their attractive factor in their faces? Amongst so many women being crowned the most beautiful in the world beauty pageants from India, why none can deny Aishwarya Rai Bachchan as epitome of beauty?

We appreciate beauty but donot get into the deeper understanding of what makes a face attractive or beautiful to everyone. Ever wondered why some faces are eternally beautiful? Being an Aesthetic Physician, where my primary job is to make people look better, I was fascinated to learn that such beautiful faces also follow the Greek Ratio of Phi, **the Golden Ratio**.

**What is the Golden Ratio?**

The Golden Ratio is based on the **Fibonacci sequence. **In the 1202 AD, Leonardo Fibonacci wrote in his book “Liber Abaci” of a simple numerical sequence that is the foundation for an incredible mathematical relationship behind **Phi**. This sequence was known as early as the 6th century AD by Indian Mathematicians, but it was Fibonacci who introduced it to the west.

Fibonacci sequence: Starting with 0 and 1, each new number in the sequence is simply the sum of the two before it.

0,1,2,3,5,8,13,21……………………..

**The relationship of the Fibonacci sequence to the golden ratio** is as follows - the ratio of each successive pair of numbers in the sequence approximates Phi (1.618. . .), as 5 divided by 3 is 1.666…, and 8 divided by 5 is 1.60.

This ratio is known as the **golden ratio**, the divine proportion or phi (named after Phidias, a Greek sculptor and mathematician who used this ratio when designing sculptures). Since the Renaissance period, artists like Botticelli and Leonardo Da Vinci had used the golden ration in their paintings, such as Monalisa or Birth of Venus. Infact, we can find the golden ratio and the related Fibonacci series in a variety of diverse places in nature. It appears in the basic spirals of pine cones and seed pods. It is found in the spatial structure of molecules. It is even being found in quantum physics. The golden ration was used by ancient and classical artists and designers to create geometrical compositions toward an emanation of godlike natural perfection.

**Golden ratio in nature some of the best photographs in Architecture**

The most famous Da Vinci's 'Vitruvian Man' models the aesthetic principle of the golden section. It exemplifies the standard of beauty in nature as one of the human body itself. French architect and painter Le Corbusier (Charles-Édouard Jeanneret-Gris) developed a system for maintaining architectural proportions in his modern art based on the principles of the golden section. The **Modulor** has many similarities to the golden section, as it does to Da Vinci's Vitruvian Man. All relate to the measurement of human proportions for the purpose of attaining beautiful compositions.

**Application of golden ratio in Aesthetics:**

We may be unaware of it but we subconsciously judge beauty by facial symmetry and proportion, irrespective of race and ethnicity. For instance, the ideal ratio of the top of the head to the chin versus the width of the head should be 1.618. Scientists from the Chinese Academy of Sciences have found that certain facial measurements, such as the distance between the mouth and nose, and the width of the mouth and nose tend to expand with age. This means that with age, even faces that were previously considered symmetrical tend to deviate from the golden ratio. During modern times, the golden ratio has been applied to facial beauty and adopted as a *guideline for aesthetic treatments. *The application of golden ratio in the field of Aesthetics has helped people in reaching a near perfect number to phi ratio and thus, making a face more proportionate and attractive. The proportion lies in many areas of the face and can be achieved very easily by injectables like Botox and Dermal fillers to give the face a desired shape. For example,

- the distance from the top of the nose to the centre of the lips should be 1.618 times the distance from the centre of the lips to the chin
- the hairline to the upper eyelid should be 1.618 times the length of the top of the upper eyebrow to the lower eyelid.

the ideal ratio of upper to lower lip volume is 1:1.6 (the lower lip should have slightly more volume than the upper lip)

The mathematical formula to find out the most beautiful face lead to applying the proportions on face of various celebrities. In an article published in a famous British magazine in 2016, Amber Heard was declared to have been the most beautiful face (91.85% accurate)in the world, followed by Kim Kardashian and Kate Moss.

Few studies have been made on Indian celebrities and some articles on the internet show golden ratio calculation on Aishwarya Rai Bachchan, but the authenticity of it remains questionable.

Recently there has been an article on a survey conducted on most beautiful women in the world based on the golden proportion. Supermodel Bella Hadid topped the list. The 23-year-old was found to be 94.35% 'accurate' to the Golden Ratio of Beauty Phi and considered to be the most beautiful woman in the world. Her eyes, eyebrows, nose, lips, chin, jaw and facial shape came closest to the ancient Greeks' idea of perfection. Hadid, according to Silva, had the highest overall reading for her chin which, with a score of 99.7%, only 0.3% away from being perfect. Singer Beyoncé, 38, was second with 92.44%, actress Amber Heard, 33, was third with 91.85% and pop star Ariana Grande, 26, was fourth with 91.81%.

Nature does not always follow the rules of beauty and the need for an artistic eye is mandatory to give patients a naturally beautiful look rather than completely changing their appearance. People say, Nature has taken time to create such face to appreciate someone’s beauty. But in today’s world, by following the golden rule, we, the aesthetic physicians can revitalize your face and make you look attractive and gorgeous !

Sceptics will, however, state that beautiful faces do not necessarily follow the golden ratio always, or that all the faces with accurate ratio are not beautiful; but aestheticians find this golden ratio as a key tool and guide to reach up to the normal facial ratio as nature!

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